Migration and Mobility in Europe
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Migration and Mobility in Europe

Trends, Patterns and Control

Edited by Heinz Fassmann, Max Haller and David Lane

The enlargement of the European Union has had an enormous impact on migration within Europe. This book addresses the form of these effects, outlining the social, political and economic problems created by the free movement of people within the European Union.
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Chapter 8: Turkey, the New Destination for International Retirement Migration

Canan Balkir and Berna Kirkulak


Canan Balkır and Berna Kırkulak INTRODUCTION 8.1 International Retirement Migration (IRM) is a new form of international human mobility which entails the movement of elder people in their later lives to the places with favourable characteristics in the pursuit of a better life. The IRM literature has heavily focused on western Mediterranean countries such as Spain, Portugal, Malta and Italy as the first wave countries. Despite some early twentieth century residents in Italy and later in the French Riviera, the figures only became significant in the 1960s. Williams et al. (1997) cite four main reasons for the overall growth of IRM. The first two are the increase in longevity and the decline in the legal age of retirement, which together have extended the duration of retirement (Commission of the European Communities 1994, 33). Growing numbers of people have been able to anticipate longer periods of active post-work life in their ‘third age’. A third reason is the increase in the lifetime flow of earnings and in the accumulation of wealth in the aftermath of World War II, thus enabling escalating numbers of individuals with sufficient resources, to consider a range of retirement strategies, including migration abroad. Of course, the growth of foreign travel also facilitated the first phase of tourism-related migration. The fourth factor is ‘the changing patterns of lifetime mobility’ which provide more knowledge and experience of living in foreign countries. A repeated holiday visit to the same place has functioned as a stepping-stone to permanent emigration...

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