Trends, Patterns and Control
Edited by Heinz Fassmann, Max Haller and David Lane
Chapter 10: The Entry of Female Immigrants into Personal Home Care Services in Spain
Raquel Martínez Buján INTRODUCTION 10.1 On 1 January 2007, according to the census, Spain had approximately 2 124 000 female foreign dwellers. This number is threefold that of six years before, in 2001, when the presence of the female foreign community amounted to 650 000 people. In the beginning of the 1990s, when Spain became an established immigration receptor country (Izquierdo 1992), the absolute number of foreign women approached 180 000, meaning a weight of 51.1 per cent in the total foreign population (year 1991). However, the relative number of females has decreased since the beginning of the 1990s, to 47.0 per cent. Male migration flows in recent years have resulted in the decrease in that percentage of foreign women. Nevertheless, that amount must not divert attention from the fact that part of that male settlement is caused by the family joining their female relatives who migrated in the first place and became head of their families. Such a situation is particularly relevant for the population of Latin American origin whose presence has always had a strong female ratio in Spain. The latest data reveal that women make up 54.6 per cent of the population of Latin American origin but, when measured separately, numbers show a tendency to male predominance among those nationalities that have been settled for longer in Spain. Foreign women have made themselves visible as active agents in the economic support of the household members and their decisions have been the element that has forced...
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