Trends, Patterns and Control
Edited by Heinz Fassmann, Max Haller and David Lane
Chapter 13: The Future of Border Control: Risk Management of Migration in the UK
13. The future of border control: risk management of migration in the UK James Hampshire INTRODUCTION: RISK AND THE MIGRATION STATE 13.1 Like most other advanced capitalist economies, the UK has developed into what James F. Hollifield calls a ‘migration state’ (Hollifield 2004). Migration states seek competitive advantage by opening their economies and societies to international migration, but at the same time they must also accommodate powerful political forces that drive them towards closure. Faced with these conflicting dynamics, migration states seek to manage migration in their interests by encouraging or ‘soliciting’ some flows, while preventing or ‘stemming’ others (Joppke 2002). As migration states increasingly seek to discriminate between migration flows, and also balance the costs and benefits of migration, new policy instruments and organizational forms are emerging. In the UK, an important recent development is the reconceptualization of migration in terms of risk, and the reorganization of migration management as a form of risk management. This reconceptualization is multi-faceted. On the one hand, across migration states, immigration is often portrayed as posing negative risks. This is risk as threat – threat of terrorism, crime, social disorder, cultural anxiety, public health and so on. While the intensity of these associations may have increased – especially the security and terrorism associations since 9/11 – the fears and antipathies that underlie them are hardly new. Indeed, the history of migration is replete with claims about the ‘immigrant threat’ (Lucassen 2005). If it were just a case of redescribing these threats using the language of risk...
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