Theoretical, Empirical and Political Perspectives on the Initial Stage of Cluster Evolution
Edited by Dirk Fornahl, Sebastian Henn and Max-Peter Menzel
Chapter 8: The Evolution of the Banking Cluster of Amsterdam, 1850–1993: A Survival Analysis
8. The evolution of the banking cluster in Amsterdam, 1850–1993: a survival analysis Ron Boschma and Floris Ledder INTRODUCTION 1. A research challenge in economic geography is how clusters evolve over time (Audretsch and Feldman, 1996; Feldman and Schreuder, 1996; Maggioni, 2002; Brenner, 2004; Feldman and Francis, 2004; Visser and Boschma, 2004; Feldman et al., 2005; Iammarino and McCann, 2005; Menzel and Fornahl, 2007; Ter Wal and Boschma, 2009). While there is quite some understanding of how clusters develop once they are in place, there is as yet still little understanding of how clusters emerge, and where. Do clusters arise from scratch, or are there preconditions that sustain the rise and development of clusters? This chapter elaborates on the window of locational opportunity concept developed in the 1990s (Storper and Walker, 1989; Boschma, 1997). This concept will be integrated in the literature on industrial dynamics, especially with respect to ideas developed by Arthur (1994) and Klepper (2007). The key question is through which mechanisms these routines diffuse and cluster spatially when a new industry emerges and grows (Boschma and Frenken, 2003). Two mechanisms have drawn special attention in the literature, that is, spinoff dynamics and agglomeration economies. Both may act as vehicles through which knowledge and routines are created and diffused among a growing population of firms within a territory. Spinoff dynamics is considered a driving force behind the growth of industries in space, because it transfers and diffuses relevant knowledge from incumbent firms to new firms (Helfat and...
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