Diversity and Relational Perspectives
Edited by Katerina Nicolopoulou, Mine Karataş-Özkan, Ahu Tatli and John Taylor
Chapter 10: Women in Public Relations and Profit Organizations in the UAE: How Gender Influences Practice
Badreya Al-Jenaibi INTRODUCTION Gender difference is an important issue. Gender is defined as a ‘classification of sex’ (Al-Lamky, 2007, p. 49), and as ‘the behavioral, cultural, or psychological traits typically associated with one sex’ (Hogan, 2010, p. 1). Gender has always been a mutter of debate when it comes to differences between men and women in all aspects of life. Each gender is purported to have different thoughts, attitudes, reactions, behaviours, physical (Biagi, 2005) and biological characteristics that lead to each gender being perceived in a distinctive way. With all these differences, both inherent and/or learned, the workplace is definitely affected by the idea of gender. Despite all the development and technology that the world enjoys nowadays, gender differences still play an unfair role as the skills and qualifications of women are lost when gender type interferes with perception. The perception that women are lesser than and unequal to men, however, has proven to be inaccurate as shown by women who have reached far beyond ordinary measures of success (Cutlip, 1994). In spite of many advances in most societies regarding women and work, in 2003, the US Federal Glass Ceiling Commission released a report showing that 49% of employers were not as likely to risk hiring females over males, especially married women (Askew and Ross, 2008). The employers thought that married women who had children were affected by their motherly emotions and responsibilities (Macnamara, 2005) which were undesirable in some jobs. Nevertheless, there are some professions that have embraced female...
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