Edited by Roger King, Simon Marginson and Rajani Naidoo
Chapter 5: Three Forms of the Knowledge Economy: Learning, Creativity and Openness
5 Three forms of the knowledge economy: learning, creativity and openness Michael A. Peters INTRODUCTION This chapter outlines and reviews three forms and associated discourses of the ‘knowledge economy’: the ‘learning economy’ based on the work of Lundvall; the ‘creative economy’ based on the works of Landry, Howkins and Florida; and the ‘open knowledge economy’ based on the work of Benkler and others. Arguably these three forms and discourses represent three recent related but different conceptions of the knowledge economy, each with clear significance and implications for education and education policy. The last provides a model of a radically non-propertied form that incorporates both ‘open education’ and ‘open science’ economies. Distinguishing a number of different strands and readings of the ‘knowledge economy’ provides a history of a policy idea and charts its ideological interpretations.1 The different strands of this discourse are radically diverse and include attempts to theorize not only ‘knowledge economy’ but also the parallel term ‘knowledge society’, and also the attempts to relate these terms to wider and broader changes in the nature of capitalism, modernity and the global economy. Early attempts by von Hayek (1937, 1945) to define the relations between economics and knowledge were followed by the economic valueof-knowledge studies of the production and distribution of knowledge in the USA by Fritz Machlup (1962). Both of these scholars were associated with the Austrian School of economics. Gary Becker (1964), a prominent member of the Chicago School, analyzed human capital with reference to education while Peter Drucker...
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