Edited by Roger King, Simon Marginson and Rajani Naidoo
Chapter 7: Extra-national Provision
Christopher Ziguras INTRODUCTION This chapter considers education provided by institutions outside the student’s home country, focused on the provision of whole programs of study rather than short courses. Cross-border education might involve students traveling beyond national borders to enroll in a foreign institution, or might involve staying in the home country but enrolling in a program offered by a foreign institution. The chapter explores the ways in which students access higher education that originates outside their national borders and considers different ways of understanding the growth of extra-national provision since the 1990s. The earliest universities were established in Europe before the first nation-states in the modern sense. We might say that extra-national provision of higher education was once the norm. The Middle Ages witnessed the creation of a network of universities, with a common curriculum (theology, medicine, law), a common language of instruction (Latin), and a common mission (to promote a universalizing intellectual transcendence of the cultural and linguistic diversity of the continent across which the network was overlaid). Students and scholars often traveled considerable distances to early universities, but they did not cross national borders as we know them. The origins of higher education were extra-national because they were pre-national, little affected by the changing fortunes of the empires, kingdoms and principalities on whose lands the campuses were located. Since then the world has been delineated into a system of sovereign states, each with jurisdiction over its own higher education institutions. During the last century the massification of higher...
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