Edited by Roger King, Simon Marginson and Rajani Naidoo
Chapter 24: Governing Knowledge Globally: Science, Structuration and the Open Society
Roger King INTRODUCTION This chapter explores the increasing global governance of knowledge systems, focusing particularly on science. Science is defined as the systematic pursuit of knowledge through recognizable and publicly accepted social institutions (which are defined as structured collections of norms). It is characterized by self-regulatory and collaborative processes that stretch across time and space and that we characterize as ‘networks’. Prominent elements of globalization can be understood as the growth of shared forms of social coordination as the world reconstitutes itself around a series of networks – increasingly interlinked – that are strung around the globe on the basis of advanced communication technologies. A ‘network’ refers to an interconnected group of people linked to one another in a way that makes them capable of beneficial collaboration (such as through the exchange of goods in markets, or the exchange of ideas). The concept of ‘structuration’ is also introduced to account for the actions that reproduce such social coordination. By ‘structuration’ we mean the interplay of agent and structure in the accomplishment of social practices, including the tensions between autonomy and constraint for agents (Giddens, 1995). Notions of ‘standards’ and ‘network power’ define the particular ways in which networked actors (such as scientists) are connected and constituted through norms as standards of appropriate behavior. ‘Standards’ as behavioral norms regulate the interactions of independent agents in the absence of formal hierarchy. As with the protocols governing access to the Internet, standards are necessary to enable people to interact. Without such standards there is no...
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