Edited by Dieter Fuchs and Hans-Dieter Klingemann
Chapter 3: Support of the EU and European Identity: Some Descriptive Results
Dieter Fuchs and Christian Schneider 3.1 Introduction The objective of this contribution is to provide a contemporary survey of empirical findings concerning the concepts at the heart of this book: support for the EU and European identity. In order to take into account the different population sizes, the survey is based on a weighted aggregate of the citizens of the EU member states. Some of the analyses are also separately conducted for the member states. The only database which allows for such an empirical survey is the Eurobarometer and it is accordingly upon this that our findings are based. The presentation and discussion of the empirical findings is guided by the following controversial questions with regard to support for the EU and European identity: 1. Has support for the EU by its citizens declined ever since the Treaty of Maastricht (1992) came into effect? 2. Has citizens’ dissatisfaction with democracy in the EU increased since the Treaty of Maastricht? 3. Is Euroscepticism a widespread phenomenon within the EU? 4. Does a European identity currently exist among the citizens of the EU? 5. Is the relationship between European identity and national identity complementary or conflicting? 3.2 The Development of the Support of the EU Generalized Support for the EU The first question is: Has support for the EU by its citizens declined ever since the Treaty of Maastricht (1992) came into effect? A vast number of analyses assume such a decline exists; among these we find the contributions to a special...
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