Edited by Derek L. Braddon and Keith Hartley
* Vincenzo Bove and Ron Smith 10.1 INTRODUCTION The first UN peacekeeping operation was launched in 1948 to monitor the truce after the Arab–Israeli War; it was followed in 1949 by a mission to monitor the India–Pakistan ceasefire line in Kashmir. Sixty years later, those two conflicts continue and peacekeeping has expanded. The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) (2009) estimates that 60 peace operations were being conducted in 2008 and the estimated cost for UN peacekeeping in 2009 was $7.75 bn (Financial Times, 4 August 2009, p. 5) slightly more than 1 per cent of what the United States alone spends each year on defence. Although small relative to world military expenditures of around $1500 bn, financing UN peacekeeping has been a matter of continuing concern. The UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (2008) says: ‘Over the years, peacekeeping has evolved from a primarily military model of observing cease-fires and the separation of forces after inter-state wars to incorporate a complex model of many elements – military, police and civilian – working together to help lay the foundations for sustainable peace.’ It distinguishes between peacekeeping, peace enforcement and peace-building. The classic definition of peacekeeping was stated by the Nobel Prize Committee when the prize was awarded to the UN in 1988 as the contribution to ‘reducing tensions where an armistice has been negotiated but a peace treaty has yet to be established’. Complex peacekeeping operations include the restoration of law and order, basic services and governmental authority, to create a consensual...
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