International Handbook on Regulating Nanotechnologies
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International Handbook on Regulating Nanotechnologies

Edited by Graeme A. Hodge, Diana M. Bowman and Andrew D. Maynard

As scientists and technologists discover how to engineer matter at the nanoscale in increasingly sophisticated ways, conventional approaches to ensuring safe use are being brought into question. Nanotechnologies are challenging traditional regulatory regimes; but they are also prompting new thinking on developing and using emerging technologies safely. In this Handbook, leading international authors from industry, government, non-governmental organisations and academia examine the complex and often controversial regulatory challenges presented by nanotechnologies. Across several disciplinary boundaries, they explore how the future regulatory landscape may evolve. From the Europe Union to the United States, workplaces to personal products, and statutory instruments through to softer approaches, it is clear that considerable vigilance will be needed in governing these powerful and novel technologies. To succeed, society will need new thinking, new partnerships and new mechanisms to balance the benefits of these technologies against their possible downsides. Anything less will prompt cries of illegitimacy and potentially compromise a promising new realm of technology innovation.
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Chapter 11: Regulation of Carbon Nanotubes and Other High Aspect Ratio Nanoparticles: Approaching this Challenge from the Perspective of Asbestos

Robert J. Aitken, Sheona A.K. Peters, Alan D. Jones and Vicki Stone


Robert J. Aitken, Sheona A.K. Peters, Alan D. Jones and Vicki Stone 11.1 INTRODUCTION The term ‘nanotechnology’ represents a multidisciplinary grouping of physical, chemical, biological, engineering, and electronic processes, materials, applications and concepts, in which the defining characteristic is one of size (Aitken et al., 2004). Emerging nanotechnology is already underpinning a multibillion $US market, and is predicted to be associated with $US3.1 trillion worth of manufactured goods by 2015 (Lux Research, 2008). Nanotechnology products include nanoparticles (NPs) (particles with all three external dimensions in the nanoscale, 1–100 nm) and nanoobjects (discrete pieces of material with one or more external dimensions in the nanoscale), such as nanotubes (British Standards Institute (BSI), 2007). Nanotubes are a particularly novel form of nano-objects, about which there is great interest and excitement. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), first discovered by Iijima (1991), are a new form of carbon molecule, similar in structure to the spherical molecule C60 (buckminsterfullerene) but elongated to form tubular structures 1–2 nm in diameter. CNTs can be produced with very high aspect ratios (ratio of length and width) and range in length from a few micrometres up to millimetres (Donaldson et al., 2006). There are many types and variants of CNT but they can broadly be categorized into two types: 1. 2. single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) which consist of a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a cylinder; and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) which comprises multiple concentric layers of single-walled tubes, with diameters up to tens of nm and...

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