The Life Cycle of New Ventures
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The Life Cycle of New Ventures

Emergence, Newness and Growth

Edited by Candida G. Brush, Lars Kolvereid, L. Øystein Widding and Roger Sørheim

The contributors to this book provide a cross-national comparison of venture emergence, newness and growth. Their chapters examine the influences of cultural, social and economic factors on venture development, compare the approaches of entrepreneurs who move from idea to emerging organization, and investigate acquisition and development of resources in growth and performance.
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Chapter 1: Entrepreneurship and Conditions for Entrepreneurs: Norway and the USA Compared

Erik Noyes, Bjørn Åmo, I. Elaine Allen and Sebastien Lecou


Erik Noyes, Bjørn Willy Åmo and I. Elaine Allen INTRODUCTION In this chapter we compare total entrepreneurial activity in Norway and the USA using data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). The two countries are contrasted with respect to national conditions including geographic, demographic, economic as well as stage and type of entrepreneurship. In addition, we distinguish projected growth and newness of technology in start-ups. Following this, we report on perceptions of entrepreneurs and perceptions of entrepreneurship in each country. When possible, statistical comparisons are made based on the 2001–08 GEM surveys from each country using chi-square statistics. The chapter provides a comparative introduction to entrepreneurial activity in both countries and an overview that connects and frames the chapters that follow. FRAMEWORK CONDITIONS FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP COMPARED Geographic, Demographic and Economic Differences Norway and the USA differ dramatically in terms of geography and demography as seen in Table 1.1. However, as shown, there are similarities in terms of the urban population percentage but more women are employed in Norway. Broadly, key differences that complicate deeper comparisons include greater ethnic diversity and economic inequality in the USA. Norway offers a much more robust social safety net for all workers, including entrepreneurs, thus reducing the economic risks of new venture failure. Ethnically, Norwegians are much more homogeneous with a predominantly white 13 14 The life cycle of new ventures Table 1.1 Geographic and population differences between Norway and the USA USA Land area 9 826 630 Population 303 824 640 Territorial...

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