Emergence, Newness and Growth
Edited by Candida G. Brush, Lars Kolvereid, L. Øystein Widding and Roger Sørheim
Chapter 1: Entrepreneurship and Conditions for Entrepreneurs: Norway and the USA Compared
1. Entrepreneurship and conditions for entrepreneurs: Norway and the USA compared Erik Noyes, Bjørn Willy Åmo and I. Elaine Allen INTRODUCTION In this chapter we compare total entrepreneurial activity in Norway and the USA using data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). The two countries are contrasted with respect to national conditions including geographic, demographic, economic as well as stage and type of entrepreneurship. In addition, we distinguish projected growth and newness of technology in start-ups. Following this, we report on perceptions of entrepreneurs and perceptions of entrepreneurship in each country. When possible, statistical comparisons are made based on the 2001–08 GEM surveys from each country using chi-square statistics. The chapter provides a comparative introduction to entrepreneurial activity in both countries and an overview that connects and frames the chapters that follow. FRAMEWORK CONDITIONS FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP COMPARED Geographic, Demographic and Economic Differences Norway and the USA differ dramatically in terms of geography and demography as seen in Table 1.1. However, as shown, there are similarities in terms of the urban population percentage but more women are employed in Norway. Broadly, key differences that complicate deeper comparisons include greater ethnic diversity and economic inequality in the USA. Norway offers a much more robust social safety net for all workers, including entrepreneurs, thus reducing the economic risks of new venture failure. Ethnically, Norwegians are much more homogeneous with a predominantly white 13 14 The life cycle of new ventures Table 1.1 Geographic and population differences between Norway and the USA...
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