Emergence, Newness and Growth
Edited by Candida G. Brush, Lars Kolvereid, L. Øystein Widding and Roger Sørheim
Chapter 3: The USA and Norway: Empirical Evidence on Properties of Emerging Organizations
3. The USA and Norway: empirical evidence on properties of emerging organizations Tatiana S. Manolova, Linda F. Edelman, Candida G. Brush and Beate Rotefoss INTRODUCTION A central activity in entrepreneurship is the creation of new organizations (Gartner, 1985; Low and Abramson, 1997; Aldrich, 1999). Organizations are defined as goal directed, boundary maintaining activity systems that emerge when entrepreneurs take the initiative to engage in founding activities (McKelvey and Aldrich, 1983; Gartner, 1985). While organization theory examines the development of exchange relationships, acquisition of legitimacy (Aldrich, 1999) and mobilization of resources (Scott, 1987) in existing or established organizations, there is considerably less research investigating the ways in which new organizations emerge or come into being (McKelvey and Aldrich, 1983; Aldrich, 1999; Gartner, 2001). Organizational formation is a dynamic process in which activities such as obtaining resources, developing products, hiring employees and seeking funds are undertaken at different times and in different orders (Gartner, 1985). Empirical studies find that more organizing activities improve survival chances (Carter et al., 1996; Lichtenstein et al., 2006), that new firm survival is enhanced when legitimacy building activities precede other types of organizing activities (Delmar and Shane, 2004) and that the concentration and timing of start-up activities impacts new firm formation (Lichtenstein et al., 2004). These studies build on Katz and Gartner’s (1988) well-regarded framework which explains organizational formation by outlining the properties of emerging organizations. Starting with the assumption that organizations emerge from the interaction between individuals and the environment, Katz and Gartner (1988) posit that...
You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.
Elgaronline requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals. Please login through your library system or with your personal username and password on the homepage.
Non-subscribers can freely search the site, view abstracts/ extracts and download selected front matter and introductory chapters for personal use.
Your library may not have purchased all subject areas. If you are authenticated and think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.