Emergence, Newness and Growth
Edited by Candida G. Brush, Lars Kolvereid, L. Øystein Widding and Roger Sørheim
Chapter 7: A Process Model of Venture Creation by Immigrant Entrepreneurs
Evgueni Vinogradov and Amanda Elam INTRODUCTION Over the past three decades immigrant entrepreneurship has gained significant attention among scholars who study self-employment, entrepreneurship and small business management. After examining over 1700 academic sources, Rath and Kloosterman (2003, p. 4) concluded that ‘immigrant entrepreneurship ... has become a kind of growth sector itself’. This interest is driven by the understanding that both ethnic societies and host countries benefit from the rise of immigrant entrepreneurship (Wadhwa et al., 2008). Although it is still unclear under what conditions immigrants and their host countries benefit from business ownership, there is little doubt that this kind of activity significantly affects every society. As such, a more profound understanding of the phenomenon of immigrant entrepreneurship is warranted. Immigrant entrepreneurship studies consider a broad range of topics varying from early entrepreneurial intentions to the intergenerational succession of wellestablished firms. The breadth of this research has identified several distinct factors influencing immigrant experiences and outcomes in entrepreneurship, defined broadly herein as the creation of new ventures from self- employment to high potential start-ups. These distinct immigrant factors include ethnic networks and resources, relationships with family and friends in both host countries and countries of origin and the role of cultural and language differences on the creation and growth of entrepreneurial ventures (Rath and Kloosterman, 2003). Despite the advances in research on the key factors distinguishing immigrant entrepreneurship from other forms, the research in this area has remained disconnected from recent advances in general entrepreneurship theory. Process views of the...
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