Edited by David Smallbone, Friederike Welter and Mirela Xheneti
Chapter 10: Governance structures and practices in cross-border cooperation: similarities and differences between Polish regions
At the end of the twentieth century, many regions became independent entities in economic terms (Macleod and Jones, 2007). Although they still remain part of national systems they have become economic actors (Capello and Nijkamp, 2009; Gualini, 2006), which rise to the position of primary participants in the global scene. This involves: a twin process whereby, firstly, institutional/regulatory arrangements shift from the national scale both upwards to supra-national or global scales and downwards to the scale of the individual body or to local, urban or regional configurations; and, secondly, economic activities and inter-firm networks are becoming simultaneously more localised/regionalised and transnational. (Swyngedouw, 2004, p. 26) Their main asset in this regard is territorial capital – a combination of unique resources establishing territorial externalities (Capello et al., 2009; Capello et al., 2008; Davoudi et al., 2008; Athey et al., 2007; Sotarauta, 2004; Danson, 2003; Ki, 2001; OECD, 2001). Territorial capital, along with the non-local1 (Lagendijk and Oinas, 2005), provides the basis for the development of territorial competitive advantages, which are of critical importance for the type, nature and direction of cross-border cooperation. Its efficiency is the derivative of the effectiveness of the mechanism coordinating interactions between political and administrative actors and their broader societal environment (Mehde, 2006). This mechanism is territorial governance defined as a process of vertical and horizontal coordination (Héritier, 2002) ‘to promote territorial development at the local-regional level through the sustainable exploitation of territorial capital, in order to reconstitute, at supra-local levels (i.e. the European level), territorial fragmentation by boosting voluntary forms of transnational cooperation
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