Reducing Carbon Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation
- The Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei series on Economics, the Environment and Sustainable Development
Edited by Valentina Bosetti and Ruben Lubowski
Chapter 7: Towards a Sound REDD: Ensuring Globally Consistent Reference
Michael Obersteiner, Ewald Rametsteiner, Florian Kraxner, Hannes Boettcher, Ian McCallum and Belinda Reyers
Deforestation and Climate Change 27/05/2010 11.45 Chap. 07 p. 121 7. Towards a Sound REDD: Ensuring Globally Consistent Reference Scenarios and Safeguarding Sustainability Co-Benefits Michael Obersteiner, Ewald Rametsteiner, Florian Kraxner, Ian McCallum, Kentaro Aoki, Hannes Boettcher, Steffen Fritz, Mykola Gusti, Petr Havlik, Georg Kindermann and Belinda Reyers 7.1 BACKGROUND The Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-Term Cooperative Action, under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Convention, has collected proposals on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD). In general, tropical countries and Annex I countries tend to agree that REDD credits need to be measurable, reportable and verifiable (MRV). Key to the supply of MRV REDD credits is robust and consistent greenhouse gas (GHG) observation and monitoring systems combined with sound accounting methodologies and an appropriate reference (or baseline) emission scenario of deforestation and degradation (DD), against which reduction efforts can be measured and compensation can be claimed. Reference levels define the business as usual scenario over a predefined scale and can therefore be used to determine the additionality of a given activity. However, the science of forestry carbon accounting and, moreover, the assessment of business as usual practices within forests is still imprecise and as such, both historic and projected baselines have a large element of uncertainty (Parker et al., 2008). With respect to GHG accounting much progress has been achieved so far. At a UNFCCC Workshop on Methodological Issues Relating to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing 121 Deforestation and Climate Change...
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