Edited by Massimo G. Colombo, Luca Grilli, Lucia Piscitello and Cristina Rossi-Lamastra
Chapter 2: The Construction of New Indicators for Science and Innovation Policies: The Case of Project Funding Indicators
Benedetto Lepori, Emanuela Reale and Stig Slipersaeter* INTRODUCTION There is little doubt that relevance for public policies has always been a major driving force for the development of S&T indicators. At least in official declarations, there has been a request from public authorities for indicators supporting the design and evaluation of national and international science and technology policies (see Grupp 2000 for a review). Thus, the surge of a systematic production of S&T indicators in the 1960s was explicitly promoted by the OECD due to policy concerns. The explicit objectives of indicator collection was to measure public research effort and to push European countries to increase their investments in it to the US level (the 3 per cent target already stated in the Frascati manual). Institutionally, the whole system has been developed in the political realm, with national statistical offices being in charge of data collection and the OECD systematically using the produced indicators for its policy analyses. In a way, and following a long tradition, this system is characterized by a systematic and organic linkage between policies and indicators, where policy questions drive both the exploitation of existing indicators and the production of new ones (Godin 2005; OECD 2007). In most European countries, there is also a wide production of studies and indicators reports intended to inform public policies and to monitor the state of development of the science and innovation system and identify priority areas for public intervention (Lepori et al. 2008). The same tendency has...
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