Edited by Keith Townsend and Adrian Wilkinson
Chapter 10: Working Time in the Employment Relationship: Working Time, Perceived Control and Work–life Balance
Lonnie Golden, Barbara Wiens-Tuers, Susan J. Lambert and Julia R. Henly INTRODUCTION The number and the control of working hours are increasingly crucial ingredients for employees seeking to integrate, balance or reconcile work with non-work life. As the dual-income household solidifies as a norm, and new labor force entrants attach a high value to their time away from the workplace, the employment relationship will come under increasing pressure to feature more ‘employee-centered’ types of flexibility. As more of a household’s time is spent in the paid workforce – in the form of both longer weekly hours or more weeks worked per year (Bernstein and Kornbluh, 2005) – the extent to which work, household production and leisure time might conflict over the course of a day gains. As coordination challenges rise, the daily timing of work and non-work time more directly affects worker well-being (Hamermesh, 1999). Workers across more stages in the life cycle are placing a higher value on their ability to synchronize schedules with others, such as that which is facilitated with flexibility in shift times and start and end times (Martens et al., 1999). Thus, an increasingly important feature of the employment relationship will be the degree of discretion, control or flexibility in both the duration and the daily timing of working hours in one’s job. The purpose of this chapter is to observe the extent to which workers perceive they have or lack discretion over the number and timing of their working hours and how that is associated with...
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