Handbook of Research on International Advertising
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Handbook of Research on International Advertising

Edited by Shintaro Okazaki

The Handbook of Research on International Advertising presents the latest thinking, experiences and results in a wide variety of areas in international advertising. It incorporates those visions and insights into areas that have seldom been touched in prior international advertising research, such as research in digital media, retrospective research, cultural psychology, and innovative methodologies.
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Chapter 8: Unearthing Insights into the Changing Nature of Japanese Advertising via the Grounded Theory Approach

Shintaro Okazaki and Barbara Mueller


Shintaro Okazaki and Barbara Mueller GROUNDED THEORY IN INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING RESEARCH: BORROWING FROM OTHER DISCIPLINES While qualitative methodologies are now an accepted feature of marketing and advertising research, their application is still comparatively limited. Taylor (2005) examined articles on international advertising published in the Journal of Advertising in the decade between 1994 and 2004, and found that the most common methodological approach was content analysis, representing 34 percent of the studies, followed closely by experiments at 25 percent and surveys at 22 percent. Just 6 percent employed secondary data analysis and only 3 percent used qualitative analysis. Given that content analysis stands at the intersection of qualitative and quantitative methods, simple addition makes clear that quantitative methods dominate. Similar results were found by Okazaki and Mueller (2007) who examined cross-cultural advertising research published during the period 1995 to 2006. Their examination revealed that content analysis also ranked first (35 percent), surveys second (33 percent), and here too qualitative inquiries were practically non-existent. Nevertheless, “it is fair to say that qualitative research is no longer viewed as merely ‘speculative’, or ‘soft’, as was generally held to be the case by many in the past .  .  . there is increasing acknowledgement, not only in academic circles, but also among practitioners, of the need for the application of qualitative methodologies in their truest and most fundamental sense in order to gain valid insights, develop theory and aid effective decision making” (Goulding, 2005, p. 295). This chapter examines the use of the grounded theory approach in...

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