Handbook of Research on International Advertising
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Handbook of Research on International Advertising

Edited by Shintaro Okazaki

The Handbook of Research on International Advertising presents the latest thinking, experiences and results in a wide variety of areas in international advertising. It incorporates those visions and insights into areas that have seldom been touched in prior international advertising research, such as research in digital media, retrospective research, cultural psychology, and innovative methodologies.
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Chapter 21: The Relation between Gender and Cultural Orientation and its Implications for Advertising

Ashok K. Lalwani and Sharon Shavitt


Ashok K. Lalwani and Sharon Shavitt* INTRODUCTION Research points to gender differences in individualism and collectivism (e.g., Gilligan, 1982; Kashima et al. 1995; Maccoby, 1990; Singelis, 1994). At the broadest level, women appear to be less individualistic and more collectivistic than do men (Cross & Madson, 1997; Hofstede, 2001; Markus & Kitayama, 1991; Triandis, 1995). For instance, women are more willing and able to care for others (Gilligan, 1982), are more aware of and sensitive to others’ needs (Markus & Kitayama, 1991), are more likely to provide social support to others (Wellman, 1992; Wethington, McLeod & Kessler, 1987), view others as more sociable (Marcus & Lehman, 2002) and describe themselves in terms of relatedness to others (Rosenberg, 1989; also see Cramer, 2000), all of which are hallmarks of collectivism. In contrast, men are more likely to focus on themselves than on others (Clancy & Dollinger, 1993), to endorse competitive goals (Gaeddert & Facteau, 1990), and to describe themselves as separate from others (Lyons, 1983), which are characteristics of individualism. These types of gender difference have often been discussed in terms of culturally relevant self-construals. The independent self construal is associated with uniqueness, self-reliance, achievement, and separateness – characteristics that parallel an individualistic cultural orientation; whereas the interdependent self is associated with connectedness, and a focus on social context and relationships – characteristics that parallel a collectivistic cultural orientation (Markus & Kitayama, 1991; Singelis, 1994). Thus, Cross and Madson (1997) noted that gender differences in human cognition, motivation, emotion, and social life may be traced to the distinct independent and interdependent...

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