New Economic Insights and Case Studies
Chapter 2: The Growing Importance of Nature-based Tourism: Its Evolution and Significant Policy Issues
2. The growing importance of naturebased tourism: its evolution and significant policy issues 2.1 INTRODUCTION During the last four decades, the demand for non-consumptive wildlifeoriented recreation tourism has recorded phenomenal growth popularised by nature-based tourism. The economic potential for exploiting wildlife resources in a non-consumptive manner in the form of naturebased tourism has been, and is, undoubtedly very large and continues to expand as many studies have demonstrated (see, for example, Davis and Tisdell, 1999; Filion et al., 1983; Hoyt, 1996; Wilson and Tisdell, 2003). Such tourism as discussed in Chapter 1, has many potential benefits and includes providing an increased and realistic impetus for the conservation of wildlife resources in the long term, especially important when wildlife resources are dwindling due to habitat destruction, poaching, and competition from alternative land uses. As argued by Tisdell and Wilson (2004), by showing a sustainable economic value for wildlife resources, habitat destruction, poaching and threats from alternative land uses can be reduced. Such tourism activities are also educational as will be demonstrated in Chapters 11, 12, 14 and 15. Non-consumptive economic values from nature-based tourism show the opportunity costs of current consumptive uses (for example, meat, eggs in the case of sea turtles and use of meat and other byproducts in the case of whales) and the incidental destruction (for example, from boat strikes, fishing nets and pollution of the oceans in the case of sea turtles, seals and penguins) of these resources. Given the opportunity costs involved in such activities which...
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