New Economic Insights and Case Studies
Chapter 4: World Heritage Listing of Australian Natural Sites: Effects on Tourism, Economic Value and Conservation
4.1 INTRODUCTION The Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage was adopted by the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in November 1972. The impetus for developing this convention came from the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm in 1972. The preamble to the convention points out that ‘parts of the cultural and natural heritage are of outstanding interest and therefore, need to be preserved as part of the world heritage of mankind as a whole’. The convention is designed to address this need. Properties are only accepted for listing as World Heritage (WH) properties if they have ‘values that are outstanding and universal’. They must meet at least one of 10 criteria (Anon, 2010a). The criteria for selection for natural heritage are that a property should satisfy one or more of the following requirements: 1. 2. should ‘contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance’; should contain ‘outstanding examples representing major stages of the Earth’s history; including the record of life, significant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms, or significant geomorphic or physiographic features’; should possess ‘outstanding examples representing significant ongoing ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial fresh water, coastal and marine ecosystems and communities of plants and animals’; or should have ‘the most important and significant natural habitats for on-site conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value...
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