Weak versus Strong Sustainability
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Weak versus Strong Sustainability

Exploring the Limits of Two Opposing Paradigms, Third Edition

Eric Neumayer

This insightful book explores the limits of the two opposing paradigms of sustainability in an accessible way. It examines the availability of natural resources for the production of consumption goods and services, and the environmental consequences of economic growth. The critical forms of natural capital in need of preservation given risk, uncertainty and ignorance about the future are also examined. The author provides a critical discussion of measures of sustainability. As indicators of weak sustainability, he analyses Genuine Savings and the Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare, also known as the Genuine Progress Indicator. Indicators of strong sustainability covered include ecological footprints, material flows, sustainability gaps and other measures, which combine the setting of environmental standards with monetary valuation.
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Appendix 5: World Bank Regional Grouping of Countries

Eric Neumayer


East Asia and the Pacific Cambodia China Indonesia Korea., Oem. Rep. Lao PDR Malaysia Mongolia Myanmar Papua New Guinea Philippines Thailand Vietnam Europe and Central Asia (cont.) Moldova Poland Romania Russian Federation Slovak Republic Tajikistan Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine Uzbekistan Serbia/Montenegro Europe and Central Asia Albania Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Czech, Republic Estonia Georgia Hungary Kazakhstan Kyrgyz Republic Latvia Lithuania Macedonia, FYR 207 High-income OECD Australia Austria Belgium Canada Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Ireland Italy Japan Korea, Rep. Netherlands New Zealand Norway Portugal 208 Weak versus Strong Sustainability High-income OECD (cont.) Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom United States Latin America & the Caribbean Argentina Barbados Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador EI Salvador Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Puerto' Rico Trinidad and Tobago Uruguay Venezuela Middle East & North Africa (cont.) Morocco Oman Saudi Arabia Syrian Arab Republic Tunisia West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Other high-income countries Hong Kong, China Israel Kuwait Singapore Slovenia United Arab Emirates South Asia Bangladesh India Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka Middle East & North Africa Algeria Egypt, Arab Rep. Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Jordan Lebanon Libya Sub-Saharan Africa Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Central African Republic Chad Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Cote d'Ivoire Eritrea Ethiopia Appendix 5 209 Sub-Saharan Africa (cont.) Gabon Gambia, The Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya Lesotho Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda Senegal Sierra Leone South Africa Sudan Tanzania Togo Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

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