How to Fill the Gap Between Knowledge and Innovation
Edited by Jean Bonnet, Domingo García Pérez De Lima and Howard Van Auken
Chapter 3: Entrepreneurship and its Regional Development: Do Self-employment Ratios Converge and Does Gender Matter?
Dieter Bögenhold and Uwe Fachinger INTRODUCTION 3.1 The idea of this chapter is to discuss the issue of self-employment not only within the conventional scope of entrepreneurship discussion but within an integrated framework which combines entrepreneurship studies with labour market research. The integration of entrepreneurship analysis with studies on social stratification and mobility provides some very relevant issues and further questions in the field of entrepreneurship. With growing solo self-employment a new social phenomenon in the structure of the labour market and the division of occupations has emerged in which different social developments are overlapping each other. The question for the landscape of self-employment in general and for solo self-employment in particular is of crucial research interest: what forces their emergence? Must they be regarded primarily as a result of ‘pushes’ by labour market deficiencies or are they a response to new lifestyles and working demands which act as ‘pulling’ factors into self-employment? In other words, does solo self-employment serve as a valve of a pressing labour market or must it be regarded more positively as a new option in the classic division of labour by which an increasing number of people find new self-reliant and also stable jobs? If one wants to talk about structural changes, data are needed which cover a broader timeframe. Therefore, we use German microcensus data from the Statistical Office Germany which are available for the periods from 1989 until 2005 to obtain further indications and specifications of the changes within the field of...
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