How to Fill the Gap Between Knowledge and Innovation
Edited by Jean Bonnet, Domingo García Pérez De Lima and Howard Van Auken
Chapter 6: Contextual Factors Favouring Entrepreneurship Initiative in Spain
Antonio Aragón Sánchez, Alicia Rubio Bañón and Paula Sastre Vivaracho 6.1 OVERVIEW The emergence and consolidation of business initiatives is a question that arouses growing interest among politicians, professionals and researchers, since it is the cornerstone for a nation to create employment and wealth in the medium and long term. Business initiatives are a vital issue in increasing employment and sustaining economic growth. The importance of the creation of businesses can be observed in the day-to-day life of the economy. Indeed, as is shown in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) study in 2007, in Spain alone some 2 000 0001 businesses were formed, between nascent initiatives (less than three months) and new ones (up to 42 months). As a result, there is an increasing number of academic works that study the entrepreneurial phenomenon. An analysis of the literature places the research lines in four major groups. First, there are the studies which from an economic point of view explain the entrepreneur’s function and the process of creation of businesses on a rational economic basis2 (Ajzen, 1991; Krueger and Brazeal, 1994; Shapero and Sokol, 1982; Veciana, 2005). Second, there is the psychological perspective,3 which analyses the personal characteristics that an entrepreneur should have to successfully create and manage a business (Brockaus, 1981; Contin et al., 2007; Delmar and Davidsson, 2000; Gartner et al., 2004; Johnson et al., 2006). A third research group, based on the fact that knowledge and capabilities are key factors to create a business,...
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