The Entrepreneurial Society
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The Entrepreneurial Society

How to Fill the Gap Between Knowledge and Innovation

Edited by Jean Bonnet, Domingo García Pérez De Lima and Howard Van Auken

This timely book analyzes the emergence of new firms in a broad context where economics, management and sociological approaches are joined. The market benefits of an entrepreneurial economy are evident in the new technology that has been made available to consumers over the past ten to twenty years. Entrepreneurial firms provide the market with innovations that create new products and, in turn, generate new employment and tax revenue, thus playing a critical role in surviving the economic crisis. The book explores diverse conditions that explain, permit and support entrepreneurship, allowing thinking outside the box and enhancing breakthrough innovations. At a time when new challenges are appearing regarding the ecological footprint, this is crucial.
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Chapter 11: Is Non-profit Entrepreneurship Different from Other Forms? A Survey Data Analysis of Motivations and Access to Funds

Franck Bailly and Karine Chapelle


Franck Bailly and Karine Chapelle INTRODUCTION 11.1 In social economics non-profit organizations are generally seen as sharing a common social sensibility; in particular, they aim to serve their members’ interests and/or those of the wider community. This does not imply that such organizations are not seeking to make profits but rather that priority should be given to beneficiaries or employees of these organizations rather than to shareholders when it comes to distributing any profits that might be made. This social orientation, which strengthens the effects of the legal non-profit-distribution constraint, leads non-profit organizations to redistribute profits on the basis of ‘equity’ rather than on ‘ownership’ (Defourny and Monzon Campos, 1992). Because of this characteristic, they have been considered as marginal or residual organizations located on the fringes of the market economy. In fact, these non-profit organizations account for quite a significant share of both production and employment. Indeed, in most countries, especially in developed countries, they account for up to 3 per cent of GDP and 10 per cent of jobs. If volunteers are taken into account, their share in total employment may be as high as 15 per cent. From a dynamic point of view, they also contribute significantly to job creation. Between 1990 and 1995, employment in non-profit organizations grew significantly, by between 5 per cent and 40 per cent depending on the country. Some countries such as France, the UK and Hungary, which during this period suffered a decline in employment of between 1 per cent and...

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