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Edited by Mika Gabrielsson and V. H. Manek Kirpalani
Chapter 16: Portuguese Born Globals: Founders’ Linkages, Company Evolution, and International Geographic Patterns
16 Portuguese born globals: founders’ linkages, company evolution, and international geographical patterns Vitor Corado Simões INTRODUCTION There is a burgeoning literature on born globals1 (BGs). This topic is gaining increasing relevance in today’s international business (IB) research. Academic concern with this phenomenon is not surprising, since BG firms play a growing role in the present stage of the globalization process. Much has been done since the seminal contribution on international new ventures by Oviatt and McDougall (1994). There is wide agreement in the literature about a host of features that characterize BGs. To the original innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk-taking features noted (ibid.), other ‘orientations’ and characteristics have been considered: global vision at inception2 (Gabrielsson et al. 2008), international entrepreneurial and marketing orientations (Lee et al. 2001; Knight and Cavusgil 2004, 2005; Weerawardena et al. 2007), learning (Autio et al. 2000; Dimitratos and Plakoyiannaki 2003; Gabrielsson et al. 2008), networking (Coviello and Munro 1995; Dimitratos and Plakoyiannaki 2003; Coviello 2006; Gassmann and Keupp 2007), and unique products (Gassmann and Keupp 2007; Gabrielsson et al. 2008). An unsettled issue is the role of the entrepreneur in BG emergence and evolution. There is agreement about the key role of the entrepreneur or the entrepreneurial team3 in shaping the firm as a cognitive focusing device (Nooteboom 2009), in providing it with an international drive (Oviatt and McDougall 1994; Rialp et al. 2005a) and in fostering networking (Gassmann and Keupp 2007; Rialp et al. 2005a). Keupp and Gassmann (2009, p. 613) note, however, that...
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