Examining the Promise of New Modes of Governance
Edited by Karin Bäckstrand, Jamil Kahn, Annica Kronsell and Eva Lövbrand
Chapter 6: Stakeholder Participation in the EU Governance of GMO in the Food Chain
* Beatrice Bengtsson and Mikael Klintman INTRODUCTION In this chapter we analyse the role of new modes of governance and deliberation in the context of the European Union (EU) policies on food safety and genetically modified organisms (GMOs). European food safety governance is an interesting case, since it appears as a deliberative rationality has influenced policy-making in a multi-level context between governments, supranational institutions and a range of public and private actors. Yet there is a strong shadow of hierarchy in food safety and GMO governance. These issues represent high stakes policy areas where governance functions are delegated to a less degree to networks of private–public actors in co-regulation and self-regulation arrangements. The chapter traces the deliberative turn in the food safety domain by examining stakeholder consultations as a new mode of governance. By employing the framework of input and output legitimacy (see Chapter 2, this volume), we investigate and evaluate what types of stakeholder-consultative processes can be found in the food safety domain, and how they have addressed GMO-related issues. The first section provides an overview of the regulatory activities within food safety and GMOs. The second section analyses governance of GMOs in the European food safety domain. In the third section problems of legitimacy in the authorization procedures of GMOs is examined. Sections 4, 5 and 6 assess whether stakeholder consultations in the food safety domain promote input and output legitimacy. Stakeholder consultations with regard to both risk assessment and risk management are analysed. Specific attention is drawn...
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