Examining the Promise of New Modes of Governance
Edited by Karin Bäckstrand, Jamil Kahn, Annica Kronsell and Eva Lövbrand
Chapter 7: Participation under Administrative Rationality: Implementing the EU Water Framework Directive in Forestry
Lovisa Hagberg INTRODUCTION Few environmental issues illustrate the dilemmas and specificities of environmental governance as well as water (cf. Carter, 2007, pp. 174–80). Water moves across boundaries, in spatial units that rarely match administrative space. Water also cycles in ways that seldom correspond to the time-dimensions of policy and water management. Ground water, surface waters and coastal waters are sensitive in different ways, but are also related to each other through the water cycle. The quality of water is extremely dependent on the area of land it drains from. The effects of water use on a small scale, at the very local level, accumulate downstream. This is why what happens to small streams high up in the stream order is often more important than measures close to the coast or a big river. Furthermore, water use is sectorized and there is often a mismatch between those that use water and those who bear the consequences of the use. Water can both be a common and private resource. Because of its vital importance, the right to water is a controversial normative issue. Water was one of the first environmental issues to be regulated in the European Union (EU) due to the need for similar criteria for different kinds of water use within the common market. As a commodity, water was open to community regulation before the environment was added to EU competencies through the Single European Act. At the same time other water issues remained under the jurisdiction of member...
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