Edited by Richard Seymour
Chapter 9: Drawing and Verifying Conclusions
Richard G. Seymour This short chapter introduces the logic of drawing and verifying conclusions. Drawing and verifying conclusions is the most significant yet misunderstood component of research, and it is for this reason that I have included a separate chapter in the Handbook. 9.1 LOGICAL PROCESSES OF DRAWING CONCLUSIONS Inferences can be classified as deductive/analytic or synthetic (which in turn can be classified as induction or hypothesis) (Peirce, 1878/1992). There are a number of logical processes utilised by researchers to draw and verify these inferences: deduction, induction and hypothesis.1 The three logical approaches to cases, rules and results (based on Eco and Sebeok, 1988; Fann, 1970; Holbrook and Hirschman, 1993; Peirce, 1878/1992, 1903/1992; Truzzi, 1988) are summarised in Table 9.1. Referring to Table 9.1, note that the fact that the social entrepreneur was Table 9.1 Deduction Rule – all successful social entrepreneurs are visionaries Case – this social entrepreneur was visionary Logical approaches to cases, results and rules Induction Case – this social entrepreneur was visionary Result/observed-fact – this social entrepreneur was successful Hypothesis Result/observed-fact – this social entrepreneur was visionary (surprise) (abductive process begins now) Rule (if) – social entrepreneurs were visionary, success would be a matter of course Therefore case/abductive conclusion – there is reason to suspect that this social entrepreneur is successful Therefore result/ observed-fact – therefore this social entrepreneur was successful Therefore rule – therefore all successful social entrepreneurs are visionary 218 SEYMOUR PRINT (M2902).indd 218 10/05/2012 08:01 Drawing and verifying conclusions 219 Table 9.2 Means of drawing general inference Deduction Alternative description...
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