The Changing Geography of Wine Production
Edited by Elisa Giuliani, Andrea Morrison and Roberta Rabellotti
Chapter 7: Bridging Researchers and the Openness of Wine Innovation Systems in Chile and South Africa
7. Bridging researchers and the openness of wine innovation systems in Chile and South Africa Elisa Giuliani and Roberta Rabellotti1 1. INTRODUCTION Nobody would now disagree with the contention that access to globally available technology and knowledge is a key determinant of learning and innovation in countries, regions, industries and firms. In the literature, a lot of attention has been focused on foreign firms as major channels to exchange and diffuse knowledge and innovation through mechanisms based on ‘learning from exports’ (Wagner, 2007) as well as through knowledge spillovers from foreign direct investment (FDI) (Barba Navaretti and Venables, 2004) and from leading buyers in global value chains (Gereffi et al., 2005). As clearly stated in the literature on national innovation systems (Lundvall, 1992; Freeman, 1995), firms are important actors in the innovation and learning process. However, they are not the only ones, given the role played by the institutions (the rules of the game) and the organizations that systemically interact with and affect the creation and diffusion of innovations in any national economic system. Other key actors are universities and public research organizations (PROs), which have recently increasingly attracted the attention of the literature, due to the strengthening of ties between science, technology and innovation in many industries, and also beyond those sectors traditionally defined as knowledge intensive. In less developed countries, the role played by universities as channels to tap into the international knowledge base has been the focus of a small number of recent studies (Mazzoleni and Nelson,...
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