A Commentary on the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA)
Chapter 14: Final Provisions
CHAPTER VI FINAL PROVISIONS Article 39: Signature This Agreement shall remain open for signature by participants in its negotiation, and by any other WTO Members the participants may agree to by consensus, from 31 March 2011 until 31 March 2013. ‘Participants in its negotiation’ Footnote 17 to Article 39 lists as participants in the negotiation of ACTA: Australia, the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Republic of Bulgaria, Canada, the Republic of Cyprus, the Czech Republic, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Estonia, the European Union, the Republic of Finland, the French Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, the Republic of Hungary, Ireland, the Italian Republic, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of Latvia, the Republic of Lithuania, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Republic of Malta, the United Mexican States, the Kingdom of Morocco, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, New Zealand, the Republic of Poland, the Portuguese Republic, Romania, the Republic of Singapore, the Slovak Republic, the Republic of Slovenia, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the Swiss Confederation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America. ‘Any other WTO Members’ Article 39 envisages that ACTA will be open for signature also to ‘WTO Members’. This would appear to exclude WTO observers, as well as nonmembers. The largest non-members who would be excluded are Russia and Iran. Russia is currently an applicant for membership of the WTO. Its inclusion within ACTA would seem...
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