Access to Drugs in Developing Countries
Edited by Kenneth C. Shadlen, Samira Guennif, Alenka Guzmán and N. Lalitha
Chapter 1: Globalization, Intellectual Property Rights, and Pharmaceuticals: Meeting the Challenges to Addressing Health Gaps in the New International Environment
Kenneth C. Shadlen, Samira Guennif, Alenka Guzmán and N. Lalitha In this volume we examine national strategies for pharmaceutical development and the protection of public health in the context of two fundamental changes that the global political economy has undergone since the 1970s, the globalization of trade and production and the increased harmonization of national regulations on intellectual property rights (IPRs). The substantial increases in international trade and direct foreign investment (DFI) that the global economy has experienced since the 1970s are well-known phenomena. Along with these changes, globalization has entailed the emergence and growth of knowledge- and information-based industrial activities based on technological innovation. Competitiveness and growth in the new global economy, it is widely recognized, are driven by technological innovation and thus dependent on societies’ capabilities for generating, absorbing, and using knowledge (Lundvall 1992; Nelson 1993; Nelson 2008; Malerba and Manil 2009). The broad changes in the global economy are mirrored in the pharmaceutical industry, which is the principal subject of this book. Pharmaceutical exports have increased dramatically since the 1980s, as has foreign investment in the sector; supply chains are increasingly global and the sector’s leading firms have enlarged their presence in production and distribution in many developing countries. Changes in trade and the location of production have also been accompanied by changes in technology and industrial organization. The emergence of a new technological paradigm based on biotechnology, genomic medicine and nanotechnology has influenced innovation dynamics in this industry (Landau et al. 1999). 1 M2772 -...
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