Natural Gas, Nuclear and Hydrogen
Edited by François Lévêque, Jean-Michel Glachant, Julián Barquín, Christian von Hirschhausen, Franziska Holz and William J. Nuttall
Chapter 11: Build-up of a Hydrogen Infrastructure in Europe
Martin Wietschel, Philipp Seydel and Christoph Stiller 1 INTRODUCTION The potential benefits of a hydrogen economy are recognized to differing degrees by national governments and supranational institutions, although the pathways and timeframes to achieve such a transition are highly contended. The development of hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles that are economically and technically competitive with conventional vehicles is a crucial prerequisite for the successful introduction of hydrogen as an automotive fuel. In addition, there are various other factors that are vital for a successful transition to a hydrogen economy, in particular, the buildup of an infrastructure for supplying hydrogen. Developing a hydrogen infrastructure requires the selection of user centers, deciding on a mix of production technologies, the siting and sizing of production plants, the selection of transport options and the location and sizing of refueling stations. Integrating all this into an existing energy system constitutes a challenging task for the introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier. The implementation of an operational infrastructure will require considerable investments over several decades and involves a high investment risk regarding the future of hydrogen demand. In addition, the supply of hydrogen needs to be integrated into the energy system as a whole, as its production will affect the entire conventional energy system. This chapter presents regional hydrogen demand and supply build-up scenarios over time which were created for Europe by considering the available resources as well as national policies and stakeholder interests. The purpose is to evaluate different infrastructure options in economic terms and...
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