Development, Implementation, Measurement and Management
Chapter 4: What can be Measured?
INTRODUCTION Since the first edition of the Oslo Manual in 1992, surveys and official statistics concerning innovation and its outcomes have evolved. The Community Innovation Survey (CIS) in Europe now covers all 27 member countries and is used in others. There have been innovation surveys in most Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries outside of the European Union (EU), in China and Russia, in African and Latin American countries and, in 2009, one began in the United States. As a result, there has been an accumulation of data on the activity of innovation in firms, on the linkage of firms with other firms, and with other actors in the innovation system, including data on the outcomes of the activity of innovation. International comparisons are becoming established (Parven 2007; Pro Inno Europe 2009a; OECD 2007b, 2008d, 2008e). Policy use has been made of indicators derived from innovation statistics, but this is not widespread, and raises a question about the place of innovation indicators in the policy process which is discussed in Chapter 5. This chapter looks at what is being measured now and at what could be measured with the existing tools. First, there is consideration of the measurement of innovation in ‘innovation surveys’, exemplified by the Community Innovation Survey for reference year 2006, CIS 2006. This is chosen because in 2009 it is the most recent for which data are available. The questionnaire is the same as that for CIS 4 for reference year 2004, which is well...
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