Development, Implementation, Measurement and Management
Chapter 9: Innovation and Development
INTRODUCTION This chapter looks at innovation measurement and policy in developing countries and the extent to which these activities differ from those in the developed economies. While there are differences of emphasis, the basic definitions given in Chapter 3 still apply. What is needed is the accumulation of experience of measuring innovation, interpreting the results, and using the findings in policy development, monitoring and evaluation. The challenge is implementing, in the context of development, what has been learned over the last 30 years. Studies in developing economies suggest that innovation is more incremental than radical, but that is just a difference of degree from the developed economies. In the developing world, the informal economy plays a larger part and, by its nature, it is not accessible to standard survey methods. It is an area for case studies, as all of the components of innovation are present, the producers, the suppliers and the market; the innovation can be studied by using structured interviews. The results may highlight the need, for example, to treat agriculture as a knowledge-based industry in a global world, rather than a subsistence activity, or the need to protect indigenous knowledge so that its use can continue to benefit the community that has developed it over time. A strong business sector is a characteristic of a developed economy, but not necessarily of a developing one. Those firms that are present may focus more on innovation for survival than on formal knowledge creation through research and development (R&D)...
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