Schools of Thought in Economics
Edited by Gilbert Faccarello and Heinz D. Kurz
Chapter 13: Non-Marxian socialist ideas in France
Non-Marxian socialist ideas in France emerged in a political movement, which progressively constituted itself in the early nineteenth century, and are inextricably linked with an enhanced political, syndical, cooperative and cultural awareness and identification among workers or a working class within industrial society. This movement progressively built up a provenance for itself, prior to, and when faced with, the influence of Karl Marx (1818–1883), the full diversity of which remains largely unrecognized. The works of Claude Henri de Saint-Simon (1760–1825) and François Marie Charles Fourier (1772–1837) are at the origin of the movement and were highly influential in the 1820–30s. Each of the two ensuing schools of thought had their own followers: the Saint-Simonian school with Barthélemy Prosper Enfantin (1796–1864), Saint-Amand Bazard (1791–1832), Michel Chevalier (1806–1879) or Émile Pereire (1800–1875) and his brother Isaac (1806–1880); and the Fourierist school with Victor Considerant (1808– 1893), for example. There were also dissident authors – mainly Pierre Leroux, who is well known for having provided one of the first definitions of socialism in 1833, but also Philippe Buchez (1796–1865) or Constantin Pecqueur (1801–1887). Leaving aside the communist utopias of Étienne Cabet’s (1788–1856) (Sutton 1994) and Alexandre Théodore Dezamy (1808–1850) (Maillard 1999), the second phase of French socialism is intrinsically linked with the names of Pecqueur, François Vidal (1812–1872), Louis Blanc (1811–1882), Auguste Blanqui (1805–1881) and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809–1865), who all played a role in the 1848 Revolution but also in the constitution of the First International in 1864.
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