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Chapter 20: An Analysis of the Choice of Livestock Species under Global Warming in African and Latin American Farms
20 An analysis of the choice of livestock species under global warming in African and Latin American farms S. Niggol Seo INTRODUCTION The earth’s climate has been gradually warming since the Industrial Revolution due to the burning of fossil fuels and land-use changes (IPCC, 2007a). Researchers find that climate changes today as well as in the future are certain to affect agricultural productivities around the world and could threaten the food security of subsistence farmers in lowlatitude developing countries (Reilly et al., 1996; Gitay et al., 2001; IPCC, 2007b). Much of the climate change literature on agriculture, however, has focused on crop failures and paid little attention to livestock production (Adams et al., 1990; Rosenzweig and Parry, 1994; Mendelsohn et al., 1994; Parry et al., 2004; Seo et al., 2005; Schlenker et al., 2005; Kurukulasuriya et al., 2006; Deschenes and Greenstone, 2007; Sanghi and Mendelsohn, 2008; Schlenker and Roberts, 2009). Notwithstanding, animal scientists have reported that livestock productions may be vulnerable to climate change. Higher temperatures are shown to directly affect animal performances such as weight growth, milk production, egg production and wool production (Hahn, 1999; Gitay et al., 2001; Parsons et al., 2001; Mader, 2003). Indirectly, climate changes are known to affect the quantity and quality of livestock feeds and pastures (Reilly et al., 1996; Adams et al., 1999; Sankaran et al., 2005; Butt et al., 2005). In addition, changes in rainfall patterns may affect the severity and distribution of livestock diseases and parasites (Ford and Katondo, 1977; White...
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