The External Dimension of the European Research Area
Edited by Heiko Prange-Gstöhl
Chapter 13: Policy Coordination in the External Dimension of the ERA: A Comment
13. Policy coordination in the external dimension of the ERA: a comment Jørgen Mortensen AN ATTEMPT TO CLARIFY THE TAXONOMY OF THE ‘FIVE Cs’ In order to grasp the nature of governance and as a first step in the discussion on ‘coordination’ it seems to me necessary to clarify the taxonomy (terminology) of five different concepts that are frequently used in the governance debate. I propose to focus on the following ‘five Cs’: • Coordination; • Co-operation; • Collaboration; • Community instruments (common policies); • Competition (elimination of barriers and deregulation). ‘Coordination’ is the act of making different actors work together for a common goal. Conceptually speaking, coordination is a top-down approach requiring a ‘co-ordinator’ but not a transfer of competences. A typical example of coordination is thus the ‘Open Method of Coordination’ now used explicitly as a compromise between elementary inter-governmental cooperation and common policies, such as, notably, the Common Agricultural Policy. The Open Method of Coordination was codified with the Lisbon European Council applying it to policy sectors such as information society, research policy, entrepreneurial policy and education policy (for example European Commission 2009; Hodson and Maher 2001). ‘Co-operation’ constitutes an approach aimed at getting the components of a system working together so as to achieve common objectives. In other words, individual components that appear to be ‘selfish’ and independent work together to create a highly complex, greater-than-the-sum-of-its-parts system. Therefore, co-operation is a horizontal approach. ‘Collaboration’ is a recursive process where two or more actors work together toward an intersection of common...
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