International Science and Technology Cooperation in a Globalized World
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International Science and Technology Cooperation in a Globalized World

The External Dimension of the European Research Area

Edited by Heiko Prange-Gstöhl

In a globalized knowledge-economy, the European Union (EU) needs a new approach to its international science and technology (S & T) policies by focusing on improved coherence across the different tiers of government and by demonstrating leadership in tackling serious global challenges. The contributors to this book analyze European S & T policies in several areas of global concern as well as by exposing both the pitfalls of policy coordination and its potential to contribute to a more coherent international S & T policy. They highlight the interactions between national, European and international policies, and explore how a common European policy for international S & T cooperation could work, and under which conditions. The book concludes that an EU external S & T policy is more likely to emerge if member states and the European Commission focus on a limited number of strategic priorities where Europe really can make a difference.
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Chapter 13: Policy Coordination in the External Dimension of the ERA: A Comment

Jørgen Mortensen


Jørgen Mortensen AN ATTEMPT TO CLARIFY THE TAXONOMY OF THE ‘FIVE Cs’ In order to grasp the nature of governance and as a first step in the discussion on ‘coordination’ it seems to me necessary to clarify the taxonomy (terminology) of five different concepts that are frequently used in the governance debate. I propose to focus on the following ‘five Cs’: • Coordination; • Co-operation; • Collaboration; • Community instruments (common policies); • Competition (elimination of barriers and deregulation). ‘Coordination’ is the act of making different actors work together for a common goal. Conceptually speaking, coordination is a top-down approach requiring a ‘co-ordinator’ but not a transfer of competences. A typical example of coordination is thus the ‘Open Method of Coordination’ now used explicitly as a compromise between elementary inter-governmental cooperation and common policies, such as, notably, the Common Agricultural Policy. The Open Method of Coordination was codified with the Lisbon European Council applying it to policy sectors such as information society, research policy, entrepreneurial policy and education policy (for example European Commission 2009; Hodson and Maher 2001). ‘Co-operation’ constitutes an approach aimed at getting the components of a system working together so as to achieve common objectives. In other words, individual components that appear to be ‘selfish’ and independent work together to create a highly complex, greater-than-the-sum-of-its-parts system. Therefore, co-operation is a horizontal approach. ‘Collaboration’ is a recursive process where two or more actors work together toward an intersection of common goals – for example, an intellec220 Policy coordination in the external dimension of...

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