Entrepreneurial Imagination
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Entrepreneurial Imagination

Time, Timing, Space and Place in Business Action

Björn Bjerke and Hans Rämö

Schedules and places of production, working times and working places, are no longer fixed due to the effects of the contemporary economy. The authors expertly bring together a focused and themed book that deals wholly with the subjects of time and space in a phenomenological understanding of entrepreneurial action and business ventures. They discuss theories and thinking of human action, space, place and time in various entrepreneurial arenas, including social entrepreneuring, environmental and corporate social responsibility, network forms of entrepreneuring, urban governance and regional development.
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Chapter 3: Our Entrepreneuring Society

Björn Bjerke and Hans Rämö


RESEARCHING ENTREPRENEURING There are many ways of doing research. One classification which fits our purposes can be seen in Table 3.1. Entrepreneurship research is both the second and the third (the second in the case of the American view and the third in the case of the Scandinavian view). The American view, which is dominating entrepreneurship in research as well as in public discussions, is market based and does not explicitly position entrepreneurship in time, timing, space or place (when compared with the Scandinavian view; however, it is possible to say that the American view positions entrepreneurship in space more than in place). Three things come naturally with such theories: 1. Discussing growth as something primary (which again points at the fact that the American view could be analysed in terms of space, not place) (Coulter, 2001; Wickham, 2006; Allen, 2010) Looking at ‘opportunity recognition’ as a distinctive and fundamental entrepreneurial behaviour (Gaglio, 1997; Kirzner, 1979; Stevenson and Jarillo, 1990; Venkataraman, 1997) Viewing entrepreneurship as a (special) kind of management (Drucker, 1985; Hjorth, 2004; Wickham, 2006). 2. 3. This kind of entrepreneurship research can be divided into four interest areas (compare with Bjerke and Hultman, 2002): the role played by entrepreneurship in the society; the characteristics of entrepreneurs and their thinking; entrepreneurial environments, including intrapreneurship; and entrepreneurial courses of events. One alternative view of entrepreneurship, what we refer to as the Scandinavian view, has another orientation. It may, for instance, mean to look at entrepreneurship as an effort to bring...

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