Entrepreneurial Imagination
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Entrepreneurial Imagination

Time, Timing, Space and Place in Business Action

Björn Bjerke and Hans Rämö

Schedules and places of production, working times and working places, are no longer fixed due to the effects of the contemporary economy. The authors expertly bring together a focused and themed book that deals wholly with the subjects of time and space in a phenomenological understanding of entrepreneurial action and business ventures. They discuss theories and thinking of human action, space, place and time in various entrepreneurial arenas, including social entrepreneuring, environmental and corporate social responsibility, network forms of entrepreneuring, urban governance and regional development.
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Chapter 4: Various Kinds of Social Entrepreneuring, Networking and Social Capital

Björn Bjerke and Hans Rämö


A STARTING POINT Chapter Three presented three fundamental variations on the theme of social entrepreneuring: Social entrepreneurs represent any entrepreneurial effort in a society, no matter where it takes place, that has a social mission as its only or as a major objective 2. As Citizen entrepreneurs represent any social entrepreneurial effort that takes place in the citizen sector of the society, that is, not in the common sector or the business sector 3. Citizen entrepreneurs are of two kinds: social enterprisers and social innovators. The first kind aims at spreading welfare to as many citizens as possible. The second kind aims at building more citizenry in the society, that is, at reducing alienation so that as many individuals in a society feel that they are citizens and not excluded for whatever reason. The first kind operates mainly in private or semi-sheltered places and the second mainly in public places. Some social innovators are operating very critically against the established society and could be called social critics. Some social innovators, on the other hand, are more or less cooperating with the established society to build more citizenry in general and more inclusiveness in particular. The name given to the second type is public entrepreneurs. So, some social entrepreneurs are citizen entrepreneurs and some citizen entrepreneurs are public entrepreneurs. This chapter will continue the discussion of various kinds of social entrepreneurs and introduce the concepts of networking and social capital. 1. 74 M2603 - BJERKE PRINT.indd 74 20/04/2011 11:09 Various...

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