Global Governance of the Environment
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Global Governance of the Environment

Environmental Principles and Change in International Law and Politics

Afshin Akhtarkhavari

This timely book examines the role of environmental principles in changing international environmental law and politics, and argues for the importance of integrating environmental principles in the global governance of the environment.
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Chapter 8: Arguments, Bargains and the Disposal of Carbon Dioxide at Sea

Afshin Akhtarkhavari


INTRODUCTION In an empirically based work on the role of arguing and bargaining in multilateral negotiations, Ulbert, Risse and Müller noted that it was more likely for actors to argue and be open to persuasion if they were less certain about the nature of the problems being discussed and their own interests and preferences.1 In a very different but significant study, Wendt argues that certain factors actively and efficiently contribute to actors collectively identifying with each other.2 These factors he suggests are interdependence, common fate and homogeneity.3 The similarity between these authors lies in the way they describe the social possibilities for actors to develop their preferences during their interactions with others. Scholars in international relations have been suggesting that studies of multilateral negotiations need to focus more on the dynamics of the social rather than the material context within which dialogue and communications take place amongst actors.4 This is not just for ideological reasons but 1 Cornelia Ulbert, Thomas Risse and Harald Müller, ‘Arguing and Bargaining in Multilateral Negotiations’ (Paper presented at the Conference on Empirical Approaches to Deliberative Politics, France, 21–22 May 2004) 14. This idea is not new and was initially discussed in the context of social constructivist literature in Jeffrey Checkel, ‘Why Comply? Social Learning and European Identity Change’ (2001) 55(3) International Organization 553. 2 Alexander Wendt, Social Theory of International Politics (1999), 343–66. 3 Ibid. 4 The term material context is used for instance by Ulbert, Risse, and Müller,...

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