3. Demography and urbanization Chang-Hee Christine Bae and Harry W. Richardson South Korea is a country that is the epitome of the core dominating the periphery. Although Seoul City has experienced a modest population decline in the last decade, the share of the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) in the national population remains very high, at 49 per cent. Despite, until very recently, a very insular resistance to cultural globalization, economic globalization has had a major impact on Korea; indeed, globalization was the key campaign and governing platform of President Kim Young-Sam between 1990 and 1996. FERTILITY DECLINE The future of urban and regional planning and of national economic development in South Korea may depend heavily on its prospective population decline. This issue makes a strategy for the reunification of the two Koreas quite critical because of the large low-wage labour supply in the North. The authoritarian regime, the poor human rights record, famines with many associated deaths, and militarism (large numbers of troops and the ruthless pursuit of nuclear weaponry) are recurrent characteristics of North Korea. Nevertheless, these should not deter the South from following a path that is clearly in its long-term self interest, although possibly at the expense of short-term material success. The sharp contrast between South and North Korea provides a useful backcloth to this discussion. Almost by accident, South Korea has benefited from globalization. Decades of an export-oriented economy (originally based on the symbolism of ‘The miracle of the Han river’), a very highly educated society,...
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