Nations, Cities and Organizations
Edited by Maddy Janssens, Myriam Bechtoldt, Arie de Ruijter, Dino Pinello, Giovanni Prarolo and Vanja M.K. Stenius
Chapter 6: Diversity in European Regions: Lessons from Germany
Elena Bellini, Iskra Christova-Balkanska, Tonia Damvakeraki, Dino Pinelli, Max Steinghardt and Lena Tsipouri
Elena Bellini, Iskra Christova-Balkanska, Tonia Damvakeraki, Gianmarco I.P. Ottaviano, Edith Pichler, Dino Pinelli, Giovanni Prarolo, Max Steinhardt and Lena Tsipouri 6.1 INTRODUCTION European countries and cities, a few decades ago still culturally and ethnically homogeneous, have now become home to large (in both number and size), communities of foreigners from all over the world in a way that was until recently unimaginable. This chapter attempts to understand, through case studies on four ethnic groups that reside in Germany, under which conditions (in terms of cultural and socio-economic background of migrants, policy choice in the host and sending country and so on) migrants can better contribute to the socioeconomic life of the host country. Germany has been and still is a ‘natural laboratory’ as concerns immigration. Firstly, movements of migrants into (and out of) Germany started earlier and were larger compared to what happened in the rest of Europe. Morevover, since the end of World War II, Germany has gone through very different approaches to migration policies, all of them contingent to particular internal and external features (in terms of labour and goods markets and the socio-political environment in Europe). We look at the population with an immigration background1 (‘migrants’ in short) from Bulgarian, Greek, Italian and Turkish descent arriving and settling down in Germany after World War II to now. For brevity, we will refer to those groups as ‘ethnic groups’. With regard to the relationships between the ethnic group and the host population, we classify them for analytical purposes...
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