Nations, Cities and Organizations
Edited by Maddy Janssens, Myriam Bechtoldt, Arie de Ruijter, Dino Pinello, Giovanni Prarolo and Vanja M.K. Stenius
Chapter 10: Cultural Diversity-Based Projects and their Effects on Sustainable Development
Milena Dragićević Šešić, Ljiljana Simić and Jean Pierre Deru 10.1 INTRODUCTION Cities and regions in Europe have become transnational spaces with new migration flows and subsequent development of networks that go beyond national borders. The integration of migrants and other social groups in local communities, however, has been partial and cultural diversity is often seen as both an asset, enhancing the community, and as obstacle or threat to the community’s identity and cohesion (Bennett, 2001). The increasing level of diversity in the majority of European communities has obliged policymakers to include this concept in policy statements, making it a part of the political landscape. In this context of change, policy documents from different European countries treat cultural diversity in a variety of ways, from celebrating ‘old’ ethnic diversities to deliberately ignoring more recent forms (for example, Latvia, Slovenia) or enumerating a multitude of forms of diversity that present a challenge for cultural policy (for example, gender, sexual orientation) (Council of Europe and ERICarts, 2010). In the cultural policy domain, the concept of ‘cultural diversity’ has entered the field of cultural policymaking in recent years at both the national and local level, especially following the adoption of the UNESCO Universal declaration on Cultural Diversity in November of 2001. This has, to some extent, also translated into changes in concrete activities at the local and regional level as demonstrated by the emergence of the participatory intercultural projects that are the focus of this chapter. The focus on arts and culture...
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