Payments for Environmental Services, Forest Conservation and Climate Change Livelihoods in the REDD?
Livelihoods in the REDD?
Edited by Luca Tacconi, Sango Mahanty and Helen Suich
Chapter 2: Taking Stock of the Global Environment Facility Experience with Payments for Environmental Services Projects
2. Taking stock of the Global Environment Facility experience with payments for environmental services projects Jonathan Haskett and Pablo Gutman INTRODUCTION This chapter differs from the others in this volume as it reviews not one, but a portfolio of 22 payments for environmental services (PES) related projects that received grants from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) between 2001 (when the first PES project appeared in the GEF portfolio) and late 2008. Although this portfolio gives little guidance about the design of an international regime for reduced emissions for deforestation and forest degradation (REDD), it provides many lessons about the design of national REDD schemes, which are important pieces of the REDD puzzle.1 The GEF is the major multilateral fund created to grant money for conservation activities in developing countries and economies in transition. Between 1991 and 2006 the GEF disbursed some US$7.4 billion which, with US$28 billion of co-financing, supported some 2000 projects in over 160 developing countries. Arguably the most important multilateral environmental agreements have designated the GEF to be their funding mechanism, among them, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Convention on Biological Diversity, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. The GEF is also a major funder for projects related to the Montreal Protocol for the Phasing Out of Ozone Depleting Substances. If funding for the UNFCCC and other multilateral environmental agreements increases, part of the additional funding will most likely be channelled...
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