National Government Interventions in a Global Arena
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Edited by Frank Wijen, Kees Zoeteman, Jan Pieters and Paul van Seters
Chapter 7: Towards an Effective Eco-Innovation Policy in a Globalised Setting
7. Towards an Effective EcoInnovation Policy in a Globalised Setting René Kemp, Luc Soete, and Rifka Weehuizen1 Two things are unlimited: the number of generations we should feel responsible for and our inventiveness. Jan Tinbergen SUMMARY Technological innovations can contribute to more environment-friendly production and consumption practices. The market for eco-innovation very much depends on government’s environmental policies. We discuss the technology impacts of national environmental policies in developed countries and the pros and cons of different policy instruments (standards, taxes, tradable permits, subsidies, communication, and covenants) for stimulating the development and use of eco-innovation. While national policies may be suitable to address local environmental problems, the protection of global commons cannot be achieved through national policies alone. International policies are needed but the sovereignty of national governments is a complicating factor. To fill this governance gap, we advocate a more prominent role for international non-governmental organisations (NGOs) for pressing governments into international agreements and for raising the intrinsic motivation and consciousness of producers and consumers. We elaborate the case for NGO action with the help of the analytical framework of exit, voice, and loyalty. 1 The authors thank Frank Wijen, Jan Pieters, and Joachim Monkelbaan for useful comments and information. 211 M2782 - WIJEN TEXT.indd 211 16/11/2011 11:30 212 A Handbook of Globalisation and Environmental Policy, Second Edition INTRODUCTION One of the major policy questions of our time, literally a ‘matter of life and death’, is whether growth in population, industrialisation, and mobility around the world can and...
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