National Government Interventions in a Global Arena
Edited by Frank Wijen, Kees Zoeteman, Jan Pieters and Paul van Seters
Chapter 17: Globalisation and Environmental Policy Design
Konrad von Moltke1 SUMMARY Numerous forces contribute to the process of globalisation, including the dynamic of economic liberalisation and the need for environmental management. The environment is an agent of change in economic globalisation. Over the past 20 years, sustainable development has emerged as an alternative to the Washington Consensus as a guide for globalisation. Environmental policy design must be situated in the field of force defined by globalisation, as it is itself an active force in this process. The challenge is to develop international institutions that are capable of balancing the overlapping needs of economic liberalisation and environmental management. This is hindered by the structural differences between (the institutions associated with) the hierarchical system of economic policy and the subsidiarity-ruled environmental system. When designing more effective governance systems, the environmental dimension should be more fully integrated into the process of economic globalisation, especially in the critical area of investment. INTRODUCTION The relationship between globalisation and environmental policy design depends on how one understands the process of ‘globalisation’ and in particular the role of environmental issues within it. Globalisation is widely understood to be synonymous with economic liberalisation, with the World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the World Bank (WB) at its centre. Besides, there are numer1 This chapter has not been revised since Konrad von Moltke passed away shortly after finishing the manuscript of the first edition. We publish this unaltered contribution as a tribute to an inspiring scholar and given the continued relevance of...
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