The Theory and Practice of Entrepreneurship
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The Theory and Practice of Entrepreneurship

Frontiers in European Entrepreneurship Research

Edited by David Smallbone, João Leitão, Mário Raposo and Friederike Welter

This timely book provides a fresh perspective on contemporary research in the field of entrepreneurship and small business, considering both theory and application.
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Chapter 12: Antecedents of the Entrepreneurial Orientation of the Firm: The Case of St Petersburg, Russia

Tatiana Iakovleva


Tatiana Iakovleva INTRODUCTION Despite the fact that entrepreneurship scholars have developed numerous typologies to describe alternative perspectives of entrepreneurship, there is still a lack of consensus regarding how to characterize entrepreneurship (Lumpkin and Dess 1996). This lack of consensus has impeded progress towards building and testing broader theories of entrepreneurship. To assist in this aim, the emphasis shifted from studying the basic entrepreneurial problem of entering business to studying entrepreneurial processes. This implies the methods, practices and decision-making styles that managers use to act entrepreneurially, which can be named entrepreneurial orientation (Lumpkin and Dess 1996). Recent studies show that firms employing innovative, proactive strategy, referred to as entrepreneurial orientation (EO), often show better performance and growth and thus contribute to their national economies (Iakovleva 2005; Rauch et al. 2004; Wiklund 1999). Entrepreneurial orientation can be broadly defined as a concept that addresses the mindset of firms engaged in the pursuit of new ventures. Thus, an EO may be viewed as a firm-level strategy-making process used to enact organizational purpose, sustain vision, and create competitive advantages (Rauch et al. 2004). While a number of articles highlighted the importance of the EO construct for firm growth and performance, less attention has been paid to studying the antecedents of the EO of a firm. Based on these suggestions and utilizing critical realism as a philosophical point of departure, this chapter focuses on the following research question: ‘what factors are associated with the EO of a firm?’ 236 M2395 - SMALLBONE PRINT.indd 236...

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