Chapter 9: Disaster Risk Reduction
The opening chapters of this book explored the discourses of disasters and development. They considered what makes a hazard a disaster, exploring notions of vulnerability and risk. Subsequent chapters have looked at the relief and reconstruction phases. This chapter will return to the discourses of disasters and development but this time the focus will be on the policy rather than the academic discourse. The chapter will focus on the ‘last’ stage of the disaster cycle, which may also be read as the ‘first’ stage – preparation. It will explore the evolution in the disaster discourse to the present focus on Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR). Despite the regularity with which they occur, disasters continue to be conceptualised as extraordinary events that break the established pro- cesses of ‘development’. However, more recently, there has been growing interest in ‘disaster proofing’ development. The notion of risk that has emerged as central to the disaster discourse has also become more central to the World Bank discourse around social protection and poverty alleviation. This chapter will focus on the global agreement that frames DRR – the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA). It will explore how the HFA relates to other global initiatives such as those addressing climate change as well as the global development framework – the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). At the same time as there has been a move to disaster proof development there has been a move to ‘engender’ disasters. Drawing on experience of engendering development, this chapter will consider the extent to which processes of feminisation of disaster response
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